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Library Resources for Faculty Research: Charlotte: Resources & Search Strategies

Advanced Searching Techniques

Citation Chasing or Citation Chaining is a way to retrace the research of the author you are reading. You want to answer to two questions:

  • What is on their bibliography?
  • What research has the author been in conversation with?

When you are chasing down citations, you are looking for books, journal articles, chapters in edited books and other resources that were used as research in your source. 

 Source: George Washington Libraries.

Backward Chaining 

Backward chaining involves looking at a published work's references to find other material that covers similar topics.

Forward Chaining

Forward chaining involves researching the sources that have cited a particular work to find more recent material covering similar topics.

Source: Hunt Library at Emery-Riddle Aeronautical University


Google Scholar

Question: Why would you use Google Scholar?

Answer: Google Scholar identifies scholarly research materials from a broad range of subject areas. It can be a great place to begin your research and learn more about your topic. 

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Unique Pieces in Citations By Source


  • place of publication
  • publisher

Chapters in Edited Books 

  • place of publication
  • publisher
  • editor
  • page numbers

Journal Articles

  • volume and issue number
  • date often includes the month
  • page numbers

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

  • volume and issue number
  • date often includes the day and month
  • page numbers